Hammer crusher is a kind of equipment for crushing materials in the form of impact, which is divided into two forms: single rotor and double rotor. It is a one-stage crusher that directly crushes materials with a maximum particle size of 600-1800 mm to below 25 or 25 mm. Hammer crusher is suitable for crushing medium hardness materials, such as limestone, slag, coke, coal and other materials in the cement, chemical, electric power, metallurgy and other industrial sectors for medium and fine crushing operations.
Hammer Crusher Applicable Materials
The crushed materials are coal, salt, chalk, gypsum, brick, limestone, etc. It is also used for crushing fiber structure, strong elasticity and toughness of scrap wood, paper or crushed asbestos cement waste to recover asbestos fibers, etc. In addition, hammer crusher can not only be used in crushing production line, sand making production line, but also can replace cone crusher in mineral processing production line.
Classification of Hammer Crusher
Hammer crusher is divided into: single-stage hammer crusher, high-efficiency hammer crusher, sand blasting machine, vertical shaft hammer crusher, reversible hammer crusher, ring hammer crusher. The hammer head of the hammer crusher is replaced with a ring type coal crusher with a steel ring, and the ring type coal crusher is a variant of the hammer crusher. It uses the combined action of high-speed impact and low-speed rolling to crush materials, so that finer products can be obtained. It is mainly used to crush coal for power plants, but it can also be used to crush gypsum, salt chemical raw materials and some medium-hard materials.
- 1. The materials to be crushed are coal, salt, white asia, gypsum, brick, limestone and other types of hammer crushers. 1. According to the number of rotors, it is divided into two types: single rotor and double rotor.
- 2. According to the rotation direction of the rotor, it can be divided into two types: irreversible and reversible.
- 3. According to the arrangement of hammers, it is divided into two types: single-row type and multi-row type. The former hammer is installed on the same rotation plane, and the latter hammer is distributed on several rotation planes.
Working Principle of Hammer Crusher
Hammer crushers mainly rely on impact energy to complete the operation of crushing materials. When the hammer crusher is working, the motor drives the rotor to rotate at a high speed, and the material enters the crusher cavity evenly. The high-speed rotating hammer head rushes to the baffle plate and sieve bar in the frame, and the material larger than the sieve hole size is blocked on the sieve plate and continues to be hit and ground by the hammer until it is crushed to the required discharge size and finally discharged out of the machine through the sieve plate .
Features of Hammer Crusher
- (1) The working hammer head is cast by new technology, which is wear-resistant and impact-resistant.
- ⑵According to customer requirements, adjust the required granularity.
- (3) The structure of the hammer crusher is sealed, which solves the problem of dust pollution and ash leakage in the crushing workshop.
- ⑷ The overall design has the advantages of beautiful appearance, compact structure, few wearing parts, and convenient maintenance. It is an upgraded product.
- ⑸Compact structure, beautiful appearance, good wear resistance and easy maintenance.
Hammer crusher structure
Hammer crusher box body, rotor, hammer head, counterattack lining plate, sieve plate and so on.
Several rows of hanging hammers are installed on the main shaft of the crusher. A pin shaft runs through the pin hole in its circumference, and the hammer is hinged between each row of hanging hammer bodies with the pin shaft. After the hammer is worn, the working surface can be replaced. There are two trapped pin holes on the hanging hammer body. The distance from the center of the pin hole to the center of the rotation axis is different, which is used to adjust the gap between the hammer and the grate. In order to prevent the hanging hammer body and the hammer from moving in the platinum direction, the two ends of the hanging hammer body are fixed with pressing hammer discs and locking nuts. It is supported on rolling bearings at both ends, and the bearings are fixed on the casing with bolts. The main shaft and motor are directly connected with elastic coupling. To make the rotor run smoothly, a flywheel is mounted on one end of the main shaft.
The arc-shaped discharge screen is installed under the rotor, the two ends of the grate are installed on the beam, and the grate outside the member is pressed by the pressing plate, and the arrangement direction of the grate is perpendicular to the movement direction of the rotor. The grate gap is formed by the protruding part in the middle of the grate. In order to facilitate material discharge. The gap of the grate gradually expands downward, and at the same time it is inclined to the rotation direction of the rotor.
The casing of the hammer crusher is composed of a lower body, a rear upper cover, a left side wall and a right side wall, and all parts are connected as a whole by bolts. There is a feeding port in the upper part, and the inner wall of the casing is inlaid with high manganese steel lining plates, which is convenient for the replacement of the lining plates after wear. The lower body is welded with carbon structural steel plates. In order to place the bearings on both sides to support the rotor, the bearing supports are specially welded with high manganese steel. The lower part of the casing can be directly fixed on the concrete with anchor bolts, and the rear upper cover, left side wall and right side wall of the casing are all welded with carbon structural steel plates. There is no protective measure between the casing and the shaft, and the leakage of dust is very serious. In order to prevent dust leakage, all parts of the casing and the shaft are provided with shaft seals. In order to facilitate maintenance, adjustment and replacement of grate bars and hammer heads, the lower body and both side walls are provided with inspection holes.
The rotor is the main working part of the hammer crusher. The rotor consists of a main shaft, a hammer disc, a pin shaft, a hammer head, etc. There are evenly distributed pin holes on the disc, and the hammer head is suspended by a pin shaft. In order to prevent the disc and the hammer head The axial movement of the shaft is fixed with locking nuts at both ends of the pin shaft. The rotor is supported on two rolling bearings, the bearings are fixed on the support of the lower body by bolts, and two positioning pins are fixed on the center distance of the bearings. In order to make the rotor store a certain kinetic energy during movement, to reduce the peak load of the motor and reduce the wear of the hammer head, a flywheel is specially installed at one end of the main shaft. The main components of the rotor are described in detail below.
The main shaft is the most important part of the hammer crusher supporting the rotor. The weight and impact force of the rotor and the hammer head are all borne by it. Therefore, the material of the main shaft needs to have high toughness and strength. The material of the main shaft is made of high-quality alloy steel. Ultrasonic flaw detection to process for quenching and tempering. 2.2 The hammer disc of the hammer disc hammer crusher is used to suspend the hammer head. During the operation of the hammer crusher, the hammer disc will inevitably be impacted and rubbed by the ore, so the hammer disc should be required to have a certain resistance. Abrasiveness, the hammer disc and hammer hole use high-manganese steel carburizing heat treatment to improve its wear resistance.
The hammer head is the most important working part of the hammer crusher. The quality, shape and material of the hammer head determine the production capacity of the hammer crusher. The kinetic energy of the hammer head is proportional to the weight of the hammer head. The heavier the hammer head, the greater the kinetic energy and the higher the crushing efficiency. The weight of the head is complete, the minimum hammer head is 15 kg, and the maximum hammer head can reach 298 kg. Various hammer head weights can be customized according to customer needs. The hammer head is made of new high-quality multi-element high-chromium-manganese steel composite casting, and its service life is Several times the general hammer head.
5. Liners and pads
The hammer crusher beats the ore at high speed through the hammer head, and the ore has great speed and kinetic energy in an instant. In order to prevent the wear of the frame, manganese steel is used as the lining plate on the inner wall of the frame, and the striking plate is made of high-manganese steel for casting and quenching. Reinforced treatment ensures superior wear resistance and impact resistance of the lining plate and the strike plate. Due to the harsh working environment of the hammer crusher, the quality of the hammer crusher determines its service life, and the quality of the hammer crusher is determined by the material of its components.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of hammer crusher are: large crushing ratio (generally 10-25, the highest is 50), high production capacity, uniform product, less powder phenomenon, low energy consumption per unit product, simple structure, light equipment quality, easy operation Easy maintenance etc. Hammer crusher series products are suitable for crushing various medium hardness and brittle materials, such as limestone, coal, salt, white, gypsum, alum, brick, tile, coal gangue, etc. The compressive strength of the crushed material shall not exceed 150 MPa. This machine is mainly used in industries such as cement, coal preparation, power generation, building materials and compound fertilizers. It can crush raw materials of different sizes into uniform particles to facilitate the processing of the next process. The mechanical structure is reliable, the production efficiency is high, and the applicability is good.
The disadvantages of the hammer crusher are: the hammer head and the grate screen wear quickly, and the maintenance and balancing take a long time. When crushing hard materials, the wear is faster; when crushing sticky and wet materials, it is easy to block the grate screen gap, which is easy to do. Cause downtime (the moisture content of the material should not exceed 10%). When crushing hard materials, the hammer head and the lining plate are greatly worn, and a lot of metal materials are consumed. Frequent replacement of wear-resistant parts requires more maintenance time. When crushing sticky and wet materials, the grate is easy to block and the production capacity is reduced.
Hammer crusher is used to crush all kinds of medium-hard and weak abrasive materials. The compressive strength of the material does not exceed 100MPa, and the moisture content is less than 15%. The crushed materials are coal, salt, chalk, gypsum, brick, limestone, etc. The main working part of the ring hammer crusher is the rotor with the hammer (also known as the hammer head).
Installation and test Equipment
- 1. Before installation, the terrain can be selected according to the source of raw materials.
- 2. The machine is fixed on the concrete by anchor bolts. When designing the foundation, a ore discharge trough should be reserved, and its slope should not be less than 50°, but the user can also customize it according to the feeder and transportation equipment.
- 3. The motor should be installed in the opposite direction to the feeding port.
- 4. The location of electrical equipment should be convenient to use.
- 5. Before commissioning, check whether the fasteners are completely firm.
- 6. Check whether metal objects or other unbreakable sundries fall into the body.
- 7. Check whether there is proper lubricating oil in the bearing.
- 8. Rotate the rotor by hand to see if it is normal and whether there is friction. If it is confirmed that the movement is unobstructed, the car can be started empty. After half an hour of testing, there is no noise, no swing, and the temperature rise of the bearing does not exceed 30 °C. Carry out a load test.
Hammer Crusher Main Parts
The main working part of the hammer crusher is the rotor with the hammer (also known as the hammer head). It is smashed by the blow, impact, shearing and grinding of the high-speed hammer. In the lower part of the rotor, there is a sieve plate, and the particle size smaller than the sieve hole size in the crushed material is discharged through the sieve plate. Hammer crusher is suitable for crushing minerals of various brittle materials. The crushed materials are coal, salt, white Asia, gypsum, alum, brick, tile, limestone, etc. The compressive strength of the hammer crusher material is not more than 100 MPa, and the humidity is not more than 15%. It can be used as crushing equipment for stone crushing, stone crushing, mine crushing, plastic crushing, garbage crushing and other materials.
Fault 1: Vibration
1. The crusher and the motor are installed on different shafts.
Solution: Correct and adjust to meet the technical requirements of installation.
2. The rotor is unbalanced
Solution: Rearrange the ring hammer.
3. The feed block is too large
Solution: Control the degree of material block.
4. The bearing seat or the anchor nut is loose
Solution: Check carefully and tighten in time.
Trouble 2: Reduced production
1. The gap between the rotor and the sieve plate is too large
Solution: Adjust the spring bolt.
2. Ring hammer wear
Solution: Repair or replace the ring hammer.
Trouble 3: abnormal sound in the machine
1. Unbreakable materials or metals enter the crushing cavity
Solution: Clean up the crushing chamber.
2. Internal parts activities
Solution: Check carefully and tighten in time.
3. Internal parts are broken
Solution: Check carefully and replace the broken parts.
4. The rotor collides with the sieve plate
Solution: Adjust the gap between the rotor and the sieve plate.
Fault 4: The bearing temperature is too high.
1. Insufficient grease
Solution: add grease.
Hammer crusher pulley hub and its matching shaft head and keyway are often worn out. After the problem occurs, the traditional method is used to ream the hub, and after repairing the welding, the shaft head and the keyway size are repaired by machining. However, the thermal stress caused by the high temperature of repair welding cannot be completely eliminated, and the shaft is prone to breakage during operation, resulting in major accidents. Moreover, disassembly, repair welding, and machining not only increase the labor intensity of workers, but also waste a lot of precious production time for enterprises.
Western countries mostly use polymer composite materials to repair the wear of hammer crusher on site. The use of polymer materials, free of disassembly, free of machining on-site repair, low maintenance cost, short cycle, greatly reduces the labor intensity of maintenance personnel; it has excellent comprehensive mechanical properties, super adhesion, no high temperature stress, fully satisfied Equipment operation requirements. At the same time, the good plasticity can ensure 100% contact between the shaft and the mating surface of the hub, avoid the possibility of gaps again, and complete the fault maintenance of the hammer crusher.
Safe operation of Hammer Crusher
- 1. During inspections, labor protection equipment must be properly worn and careful.
- 2. Regularly check the wear of the hammer head, observe whether the hammer head has cracks, whether the hammer head connection vibrates, and take corresponding measures and report to the superior leader.
- 3. The particle size of the material crushed by the crusher is not allowed to exceed the specified maximum particle size of the material.
- 4. Pay attention to the running sound of the crusher, check whether the hydraulic and lubrication systems are normal, contact the central control in time if any abnormality is found, take corresponding measures according to the situation and report to the superior in time.
- 5. Regularly check whether the protective cover of the transmission belt and the coupling is loose, and whether the anchor bolts are loose, otherwise they should be tightened in time.
- 6. Regularly check the temperature and sound of the bearing, the vibration of the body, and notify the relevant personnel in time to check if there is any abnormality.
- 7. When the equipment is in operation, if the crusher makes an abnormal sound of crushing, it should stop immediately and notify the relevant personnel and supervisors for detailed inspection.
- 8. Pay attention to observe whether there are large blocks in the discharge pit that exceed the requirements of the feeding particle size. If found, immediately stop the plate feeder for processing.
Operation and maintenance
Hammer crusher is a high-speed rotating crushing machine. In order to ensure its normal operation, the operator must operate in strict accordance with the regulations, and do a good job in the maintenance of the equipment.
- (1) Before starting and stopping, get in touch with the upper and lower processes related to the machine, and perform correct operations in the order of starting and stopping.
- (2) To start the truck empty, pay attention to the material in the crushing chamber should be emptied and then stop.
- (3) Always check all the anchor bolts and lining bolts of the equipment for looseness. If they are loose, they should be tightened in time.
- (4) Frequently check the use of easy-to-wear and wearing parts such as hammer head and lining plate. If any problem is found, it should be dealt with in time.
- (5) Always check the lubrication condition and keep the lubrication system in good condition. The temperature of the rotor bearing should be kept below 60 ℃, and the maximum temperature should not exceed 70 ℃.
- (6) Keep the feeding uniform, and pay attention not to feed metal debris.
- (7) Pay attention to check whether the discharge granularity meets the quality requirements, if not, replace the grate bar or adjust the height of the grate bar bracket.
Precautions of Hammer Crusher
In addition to the general requirements of toothed roller crushers for the installation, use and maintenance of hammer crushers, the following points must be emphasized:
- (1) Hammer crusher crushes materials through high-speed rotating hammer heads. Therefore, the installation of the foundation and the rotating shaft must be strictly level, and the error is not more than 0.5/1000mm in the longitudinal direction and 0.1/1000mm in the axial direction.
- (2) The gap between the hammer head and the grate bar of the hammer crusher can be adjusted by the two eccentric wheels at the lower part of the grate bar according to the requirements of crushing granularity. Gap adjustment requirements: When the crushing particle size of the material is 5mm, the gap between the hammer and the grate can be adjusted to 10~15mm; when the crushing particle size is 10mm, the gap can be adjusted to 15~25mm. The gap of the grate itself can also be adjusted according to the needs of the crushing particle size by adding and subtracting gaskets within a certain range.
- (3) During the use of the hammer crusher, the wear of the lining plate, hammer head and grate should be checked regularly. If necessary, it should be replaced in time. After the hammer head is worn out, it can be repaired by alloy electrode surfacing and continue to use, but the surfacing welding should be symmetrical and balanced, otherwise it will cause the equipment to run unbalanced and cause severe vibration.
- (4) The replacement of the hammer head must be replaced in pairs according to the relative position, otherwise it will cause the imbalance of the rotor rotation.
- (5) The maximum temperature of the rotor bearing shall not exceed 70°C. If it exceeds 70°C, it should be stopped immediately for inspection and treatment.
- (6) If the bearing seat is lubricated with thin oil, add lubricating oil to the bearing after every 8 hours of operation. The height of the oil level should be kept at the center of the lowest ball, and the lubricating oil should be changed every 3 months. If it is dry oil lubrication, the dry oil cup gland should be screwed 2~3 times per shift, a certain amount of dry oil should be added, and the bearing should be cleaned every six months.